What is CBD?
What Is CBN?
CBN is a mildly intoxicating compound in marijuana and is unique to the plant. Like the vast majority of cannabis components, CBN is fat-soluble, not water-soluble.
It has a specific relationship with THC because, unlike other molecules, CBN doesn’t come directly from the marijuana plant. Instead, it forms from the exterior oxidation of THC. In other words, THC converts into CBN during its degradation. When you cut and store cannabis, THC ultimately becomes CBN.
The acid form of THC, THC-A, gets converted to CBN-A when it is exposed to air for a significant period. The presence of air causes THC-A to lose hydrogen molecules, and then it undergoes oxidation. The result is the acid form of CBN.
You can then treat the compound with UV light and heat and convert it to CBN. It dissolves well in methanol and ethanol. Poorly stored marijuana plants are often high in CBN.
Since CBN is the breakdown of THC as the intoxicating compound ages, people often dismiss it. After all, you only find it in stale buds, so how useful can it be?
However, recent research has determined that CBN potentially has an array of medicinal benefits. According to Steep Hill Labs, it is the most sedative of all cannabinoids. Just 5mg of CBN is reportedly the equivalent of 10mg of Valium in body relaxation terms. Although CBN has some intoxicating properties (it is derived from THC, after all), they are about 10% as potent.
What Is the Difference Between CBN & CBD?
CBD is one of the most abundant cannabinoids in marijuana and can comprise up to 40% of cannabis resin. It doesn’t cause consumers to get high, and people generally use it for medicinal rather than recreational purposes. CBD produces anxiolytic effects that reduce the hallucinogenic effects of THC. Unlike CBN, CBD does not appear after oxidation as it is already abundant in the plant.
CBD directly acts on the endocannabinoid system (ECS) to influence anandamide levels. As already mentioned, CBN only occurs by the exposure of weed to air and the subsequent degradation of THC.
CBN doesn’t seem to have a direct effect on the ECS. Overall, experts believe CBN reduces the potency of marijuana. It is also a weak partial agonist at the two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. At present, medical researchers have yet to understand the metabolic effects of CBN fully. With CBD, there is far more data available.
What Is CBN Used for?
The benefits of CBN are manifold. First and foremost, CBN is by far the most potent sedative of any identified marijuana compound. It may help you get a restful night’s sleep without the grogginess or side effects of prescription sleeping pills. Evidence of its ability to treat insomnia goes back as far as 1976. A study from 1995 on insomniac mice all but proved its efficacy concerning promoting better sleep.
As a result, one of the primary uses of CBN is to treat insomnia. As we mentioned above, it is even more sedative than Valium. THC-high marijuana strains that also contain CBN and myrcene may be good options if you’re sleep-deprived.
CBN is synergistic with Delta-9-THC and CBD regarding sleep inducement. When you combine it in the right ratios, it may provide at least six hours of sleep without you waking up feeling drowsy.
WHAT IS DELTA 8
How Does It Compare to Regular Marijuana (Delta-9-THC)?
Why is there such a growing demand for Delta-8? For starters, its chemical structure is similar to that of its well-known cousin, Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta-9-THC), the main psychoactive compound found in marijuana. That’s what gets you “high.”
Both Delta-8 and Delta-9 are forms of THC. But when people refer to THC, they usually mean the Delta-9 that’s found in high concentrations in marijuana. Both produce a euphoric, fuzzy feeling, but Delta-8 causes a milder high.
Is Delta-8 Legal?
Another reason for Delta-8’s growing popularity is that, unlike heavily regulated THC, Delta-8 is legal to use in most states. That’s because it’s extracted mostly from hemp-derived CBD, which is legal to farm across the U.S.
But Delta-8 sits in a legal gray area. Hemp’s legality stems from the so-called federal farm bill (the Agriculture and Nutrition Improvement Act of 2018), which removed hemp and its byproducts from the list of controlled substances. The reason: Hemp’s low THC levels (less than 0.3%). The bill doesn’t mention Delta-8 anywhere. Hemp advocates and others who sell it have used this loophole to legally market Delta-8 products, usually with no age restrictions. As a result, it’s now the fastest growing product from the hemp industry.
Because there’s little oversight or lab testing on what goes into Delta-8 products, chemists and other scientists have safety concerns. Products labeled as Delta-8 may contain impurities, including high levels of THC. As a result, around a dozen states, including New York and Colorado, are beginning to restrict or ban the use of Delta-8.
What is THCO?
THCO is a new, powerful cannabinoid (derived from hemp) that can cause psychoactive effects and feelings of euphoria. It has been rumored that THCO is roughly three times more potent than regular THC.
Some people say that it is the most potent cannabinoid in the world. THCO can be found in various products, including tinctures, capsules, and topical creams.
THC is converted to THCO through the process of acetylation, which means it has been subjected to that procedure. When cannabinoids are subject to acetylation, their potency typically increases by a factor of three.
Whatever the amount, 300% or 3x, there is a general agreement that THCO has roughly three times the potency of THC. There's no scientific evidence to support it, other than animal tests done by the US Army Chemical Corps in the 1970s.
Not only does THCO differ in chemical composition from regular THC, but it also produces entirely different effects. This cannabinoid can only activate once it's been processed by the liver, as it acts as a prodrug within the human body.
THCO can be found in various products, including tinctures, capsules, and topical creams. It is also being studied for its potential medicinal benefits. Some of the potential therapeutic applications of THCO include:
Improving sleep quality
While more research is needed to determine the full extent of THCO's therapeutic potential, early studies suggest that this cannabinoid could be a powerful tool in the fight against various chronic diseases and conditions.
If you're interested in trying products containing THCO, make sure to do your research and purchase them from a reputable source. Start with a low dose and increase gradually as needed. As with all cannabinoids, it's important to be aware of the potential risks and side effects before using THCO-containing products.
Does THCO get you high?
THCO will give you a euphoric high that is comparable to delta-9, but with added hallucinogenic effects. Some of these visual distortions, auditory hallucinations, and emotional intensifications that you may experience under the influence of THCO depend on the dose.
What are the side effects of THCO?
The side effects of THCO are similar to those of THC, but they can be more intense. Some people may experience anxiety, paranoia, or panic attacks when using products containing this cannabinoid. It's important to start with a low dose and increase gradually as needed to minimize the risk of negative side effects.
As with any cannabinoid, it's also important to be aware of the potential risks and side effects before using THCO-containing products.
Why is the initial high from THCO gummies delayed?
THCO gummies may have a delayed onset because they need to be processed by the liver before they can take effect. Once they are processed, THCO gummies will give you a powerful high that is comparable to delta-nine THC.
What's the difference between THCO and CBD?
THCO and CBD are two different cannabinoids that offer their own unique benefits. CBD is non-psychoactive, which means it won't give you a high. THCO is psychoactive and will give you a euphoric high. Both cannabinoids can be found in various products, including tinctures, capsules, and topical creams.
CBD is being studied for its potential therapeutic benefits, including reducing anxiety, relieving pain, and fighting cancer cells. THCO is also being studied for its potential therapeutic benefits, including reducing inflammation and improving sleep quality.
Is THCO legal?
THCO is in a federally legal grey area and is currently permitted (not banned) in 38 US states, including Alabama, California, and Texas. The legal status of THCO may change in the future, so it's important to stay up-to-date on the latest laws and regulations.
If you're interested in trying THCO then you'll want to consider the best products we've featured here today. Below are the top 7 brands we recommend you buy this year:
What Is HHC?
HHC stands for hexahydrocannabinol. It is a hydrogenated form of THC and can be found naturally in cannabis plants. It has two hydrogen atoms in place of the double bond that’s found in THC, which makes it less prone to oxidation. Not easily oxidizing increases the overall stability of the cannabinoid, which, in turn, results in a longer shelf life for HHC products.
Although HHC can be detected in plants, it is only present in small amounts. For this reason, much of what is in HHC products is made synthetically. This is done through the process of hydrogenation, wherein either naturally occurring THC or CBD that has been transformed into THC is saturated with hydrogen atoms.
The same process of hydrogenation that is used on CBD extract is how vegetable oils are turned into margarine. The first time HHC was semi-synthetically created in this manner was when chemist Roger Adams hydrogenated Delta-9 THC back in 1944. It was again experimented with in the 1960s and ‘70s, but has not been studied extensively until now.
THC vs. HHC
Though most of the molecular structure of HHC is identical to that of THC, there is a key distinguishing difference. While the recently popularized cannabinoids Delta-7, -8, and -10 are also slight variations of the most popular and abundant Delta-9 cannabinoid, they all vary in the location of the double bond in their molecular structure. They are all THC, just with varying degrees of compatibility with the endocannabinoid system.
In contrast, HHC comes about when the double bond is broken and replaced by hydrogen. The added hydrogen makes HHC more structurally stable than THC, which allows it a significantly longer shelf life. Along with a reduced vulnerability to oxidation, HHC can also withstand heat and UV exposure better than THC.
HHC and the Endocannabinoid System
Not many studies have been conducted on HHC and we don’t yet know much about the cannabinoid. Currently, even the potency of HHC is disputed. While some claim that HHC is approximately 70-80% as potent as Delta-9 THC, others reason that, milligram-per-milligram, HHC is less potent than even Delta-8 THC, which is approximately half as potent as Delta-9.
The thought behind HHC being less potent lies in the manufacturing of HHC products. The final product results as a mix of two different HHC molecules—9R HHC and 9S HHC. The difference between these is that 9R HHC actively binds to the endocannabinoid receptors, while 9S HHC does not bind well due to the slight difference in the molecular structure. While 9R HHC produces similar effects as Delta-8 THC, it would require more HHC to achieve similar effects.
Claims have also been made on the contrary. According to this theory, the portion of HHC products that metabolizes has stronger effects on the user due to the increased stability and bioavailability of the molecule.
HHC seems to have a strong affinity to bonding with the endocannabinoid receptors and is believed to have a much greater level of efficacy than THC as a result. This has been linked with its apparent ability to significantly reduce discomfort.
The confusion seems to lie in HHC having three chiral centers, meaning that there are actually three different forms of HHC. Each of these forms is called an enantiomer, and each enantiomer is determined by which of the three chiral centers HHC bonds to. If it bonds to the first, then this enantiomer will activate the CB1 receptor. If it bonds to the second chiral center, then that enantiomer will activate the CB2 receptor. And if it binds to the third chiral center, then it will be unable to activate either receptor.
9R HHC and 9S HHC are the two most common enantiomers found in HHC products. Although they bind with CB receptors differently, the theory is that HHC could potentially address two conditions at the same time. By binding to both receptors, HHC hypothetically absorbs more efficiently and results in stronger effects.
More research needs to be done to fully understand the effects that HHC can have, but studies done so far seem to suggest that using HHC produces similar effects to those of THC, but with predominantly sedative qualities that are similar to those of an Indica strain or of Delta-8 THC.
How HHC Is Made
HHC can naturally be found in cannabis plants, but only in very small amounts. In order to have enough HHC to use and sell, it has to be created in a lab instead. For this reason, HHC can be considered both a natural and a semi-synthetic cannabinoid.
HHC is created through hydrogenation. CBD or THC is first extracted from hemp plants, then distilled and isolated. This powder substance is the base that is then chemically saturated with hydrogen atoms, which breaks open the double bond and replaces it with two hydrogen atoms. It is then exposed to a catalyst such as nickel or zinc that helps convert the cannabinoid into HHC.
The entire hydrogenation process occurs within a chemical reactor, and out comes a dark, golden oil that is HHC. This oil is then refined and distilled, at which point it can be transformed into a usable product.
What Are the Effects of Using HHC?
HHC is one of the newest cannabinoids on the market and there are not yet many conclusive results surrounding it. Some anecdotal evidence points at HHC having similar effects as THC, presumably because of the similarities in their molecular structures and the resulting interactions with the endocannabinoid system.
Studies are being conducted on animal test subjects, but we do not yet know much about the effects of HHC with certainty
Does HHC Show Up on a Drug Test?
Claims have been made that HHC may not show up on a drug test, but the findings are not yet conclusive. For now, it is recommended that anyone who may have to pass a drug test in the foreseeable future not use HHC products.
Anything that our bodies ingest gets processed through the liver and turned into a metabolite, and drug tests detect metabolites that occur from specific substances. The metabolite that reads for THC use is 11-hydroxy-THC, which can be detected with the use of all known Delta variations. However, the theory is that HHC doesn’t convert into 11-hydroxy-THC and would thus, hypothetically, not be detected by a drug test.
Studies on HHC are still in their infancy and nothing has been confirmed as to whether or not HHC will show up on a drug test. HHC is already gaining a following and studies are sure to continue, so perhaps we will soon have a clearer understanding of HHC and the effects it can have.
Is HHC Legal?
As is the case with many of the products that have recently appeared on the market, HHC falls into a legal gray area, and there’s a reason for that. Since the Farm Bill was passed in 2018, all hemp-derived substances that contain less than 0.3% THC are not considered a controlled substance and are thus technically legal. As long as all products originate from a substance that has been extracted from a hemp plant, the resulting product is also a legal hemp derivative.
Some have even expressed that HHC may have even greater legal promise than the Delta varieties of THC simply because it isn’t actually THC at all. While all Delta varieties still contain up to 0.3% Delta-9 THC, HHC doesn’t have the same double bond and doesn’t metabolize into 11-hydroxy-THC. Furthermore, some states have already banned Delta-8 and Delta-10, but HHC does not fall under the same rules.
As it stands, HHC seems to remain federally legal under the 2018 Farm Bill, but it should be noted that some states are more liberal about psychoactive substances than others. Always exercise caution and be aware of the laws in your state.
What is Delta-10 THC?
Delta-10 is one of the hundreds of THC compounds that’s also close relatives with the longer-known Delta-9, which you would probably know to be the compound that brings about the all-too-familiar cannabis-induced feelings of high and euphoria. With its straight-out-of-a-movie discovery story, Delta-10 THC is highly elusive at the moment, with the compound only being found in trace amounts at most and only after certain processes are carried out.
Research on this intriguing compound is still in progress and so not much is known about it as of yet. But even now, it’s already showing great potential for both recreation and health that we think it to be a good idea to get to know it before it becomes even more hyped up. To get you started, we’ve put together everything that we know so far about Delta-10 THC.
Delta-10 THC vs Delta-9 THC
Delta-9 THC is the cannabinoid that’s known to be responsible for making us feel the highs associated with cannabis. The main difference between that and the mysterious Delta-10 is simply where the bonds are in their chemical structures; Delta-9 has its bond on the ninth carbon chain, Delta-8’s is on the eighth, and Delta-10’s is—you guessed it—on the tenth. For many of us, it doesn't seem like there is any difference, but such variations are enough to cause quite different reactions in our bodies.
Delta-9 can be too potent for some users, with paranoia being on the table when taken in large quantities. The emergence of compounds like Delta-8 and Delta-10 THC, whose effects are subtly yet positively different, can truly be a godsend for many.
But is the hype justified? Will continued research yield any useful results? Is Delta-10 THC psychoactive?
Again, just like Delta-8, it isn’t too far off from Delta-9, chemical structure-wise. It is a new form, but it still is THC. So yes, Delta-10 THC can get you high. Its molecular nature can also make it safe for us to say that it will most likely offer the same benefits as other cannabinoids do.
Oh, and yes, continued research will definitely be worth it.
Delta-10 THC Effects
Research surrounding Delta-10 is still in its early stages, and with not much information to go by, there aren’t many definitive reviews of it yet. Those who have tried it, however—in states and countries where it’s legal, or those who’ve successfully extracted and processed it from hemp—all came back with more or less the same feedback: both Delta-8 and Delta-10 pale in comparison to the standard THC in terms of potency, but that it’s exactly what makes them so charming.
Early users have also reported the stark difference between the two new deltas: Delta-8 THC can be reminiscent of indica effects, while effects of Delta-10 THC are similar to those that you would get from sativa strains.
In a nutshell, the three produce very similar yet fairly varying THC effects.
Delta-10 THC Benefits
Tapping back into what we mentioned earlier, Delta-10 THC has a chemical structure that is not entirely new to scientists and researchers. A more comprehensive study on the cannabinoid is very much needed, but a safe guess would be that it will most likely present benefits that other forms of THC have been found to offer.
Here’s a short list of potential advantages from Delta-10, again, based on properties that its sister compounds have been known to have in common:
- A pleasurable increase in energy
- Moods being lifted
- Pain relief
- Neuroprotective tendencies
As more research is performed on Delta-10, benefits specific to it will definitely come into light. For now, we can look forward to more conclusive studies about it. In a year or two, maybe?
What Is THCV?
The THCV cannabinoid (tetrahydrocannabivarin) is a relatively abundant yet little-known cannabinoid. It is a compound that potentially provides people with an array of benefits and unique effects. Researchers discovered THCV in 1973, and while it isn’t as popular as CBD or THC, it is an extremely well-studied cannabinoid.
It is a molecule with C19H26O2 as its chemical formula. This means it contains 19 carbon atoms, 26 hydrogen atoms, and two oxygen atoms. It follows the typical phytocannabinoid behavior of being insoluble in water but very soluble in lipid-based solvents. Structurally, it is similar to the famed intoxicating cannabinoid THC, but we outline a few differences below.
THCV is unusual insofar as it is only intoxicating in high doses, a bit like CBN. Most known cannabinoids are synthesized from cannabigerol (CBG), a compound found in all forms of cannabis. CBG goes through a metabolic process from which CBD, THC, and several other cannabinoids are created. However, THCV forms after the joining of divarinolic acid and geranyl phosphate. The resulting THCVA is decarboxylated to create THCV.
THCV acts as an antagonist of the CB1 receptor in low doses, which means you won’t experience a ‘high.’ When you increase the dose, though, something very strange happens; THCV switches behavior and acts as a CB agonist, activating the CB1 and CB2 receptors, like THC. This means you WILL get intoxicated.
When you smoke a high THCV strain in large doses, you should experience a stimulating and clear-headed high that doesn’t last long. You can expect THCV to work faster than THC, but it lacks its cousin’s longevity. Let’s take a closer look at the differences between the two before focusing on THCV benefits.
What’s the Difference Between THCV & THC?
THCV can somewhat mimic the intoxicating effects of THC in large doses because of their similar structures. For example, their atoms have an almost identical arrangement. However, THC’s side-chain comprises a pentyl group, while THCV’s has a propyl side-chain. The best-known cannabinoids are made from pentyl groups, but some follow THCV’s propyl group (including CBDV and CBV).
One of the fascinating differences between the two cannabinoids is that THCV suppresses appetite, whereas THC increases it (a.k.a. ‘the munchies’). Studies have shown that THCV can limit the effects of THC.
Research suggests that THCV has some legitimate medical benefits. Along with several other cannabinoids, it binds to receptor sites in the immune system, major organs, and brain. Also, the fact THCV doesn’t cause a high in small doses is beneficial to many users. Here are a few of the cannabinoid’s apparent benefits.
One of the main reasons for THCV’s effects in this field is that it suppresses CB1 receptors. A study published in the Journal of Cannabis Research found that THCV decreases appetite, increases feelings of fullness, and up-regulates energy metabolism. The researchers concluded that THCV for weight loss showed a lot of promise.
A small weight loss study funded by the National Institute of Health in 2021 tested the benefits of Nitro-V, a hemp extract microcapsule containing THCV. At the end of the 90-day trial period, participants who used the extract experienced weight loss without changes to diet or exercise.
However, a human study from 2015 suggested there isn’t enough evidence to claim THCV suppresses appetite. The researchers found that 10mg of THCV was enough to affect food reward and aversion. The cannabinoid increased the activation of various brain regions in response to aversive food stimuli and chocolate. However, THCV didn’t impact how users perceived a food’s pleasantness, nor did it impact the desire for the food stimuli.
Is THCV Legal?
Confusion reigns over whether THCV is legal in the United States. It is not scheduled at the federal level in America, nor is it scheduled by the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. Therefore, the assumption is that THCV is legal if it comes from industrial hemp with a maximum THC content of 0.3%.
However, the FDA’s Interim Final Rule (IFR) prohibits any form of THC created synthetically, regardless of whether it comes from hemp or cannabis. Furthermore, the Federal Analogue Act bans the analogs of THC.
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